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In Polish law, there are at present no regulations on corporate groups. There is, admittedly, a sparce regulation on group contracts. This regulation is, however, so watered down that it is rarely used in practice as a basis for concluding such group contracts. To date, no case law has been developed to correct breaches within a group either.
This means that there is currently no clear legal basis in Polish law for binding instructions being issued in a group. Neither does a parent company have the power to demand that a subsidiary provide the information needed for decisions to be made concerning the entire group. In practice, however, such instructions are often issued, and information is sent to head office. Subsidiaries’ directors are then exposed to the risk of liability for activities that harm the company’s interests.
Consequently, a committee of experts set up in the Polish government prepared and published a draft of a new corporate group law in July 2020. The aim of the regulation indicated by the draft authors is to improve the management of groups, especially wholly owned subsidiaries, and to protect subsidiaries’ minority shareholders and creditors.
The draft is based on an original concept that has not yet been tested in other legislations. It can be placed somewhere between the French solutions based on the so-called Rozenblum doctrine and the German Konzernrecht.
The draft legalises the issuing of binding instructions to subsidiaries by the parent company in order to pursue the group’s common interests. This type of authorisation exists in German corporate group law, but only based on a group contract. However, in the Polish draft, group contracts are to be replaced by appropriate rules in subsidiaries’ articles of association and this is where it can be indicated that each group company is to be guided by the common interests of the group. Such a provision in the articles of association will, among other things, entitle the parent company to issue instructions.
Moreover, as regards the group management model, the draft proposes differing management rules depending on whether a company is wholly owned. Wholly owned subsidiaries will not be able to refuse to carry out the parent company's instructions even if they may lead to the company’s insolvency. It means that in such groups the interests of the subsidiaries are to be entirely subordinated to the interests of the group. However, companies that have minority shareholders will be able to refuse to follow instructions if either:
The full article is available at International Bar Association website.
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